Referenties en artikels


Research linking physical development and/or primitive reflexes to educational performance and behaviour (chronological)

*Authored or co-authored by INPP or an INPP Licentiate

Parmenter C, 1975.  The asymmetric tonic neck reflex in normal first and third grade children.  American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 29:463-468.

Rider B, 1976. Relationship of postural reflexes to learning disabilities.  American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 25/5:239-243.

Bender M, 1976.  Bender Purdue reflex test and training manual.  Academic Publications. San Rafael. CA. Blythe P, 1978.Minimal brain dysfunction and the treatment of psychoneuroses. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 22/4:247-255.

*Blythe P. McGlown D, 1981.  MBD and OBD.  Swedish Medical Journal. 78/1-2.

*Blythe P, 1982. Agoraphobia – is it organic?  World Medicine.  July 10. 1982.

*Goddard SA, 1995.  The role of primitive reflexes in the development of the visual system.  Journal of Behavioral Optometry. 6/2:31-35.

*Goddard SA, Hyland D. 1998.  Screening for Neurological Dysfunction in the Specific Learning Difficulty Child.  The British Journal of Occupational Therapy.61/10:459-464.

*Goddard Blythe SA, 2000.  Early Learning in the Balance. Priming the First A,B,C.   British Journal of Learning Support. 15/4:154-158.

McPhillips M, Hepper P, Mulhern G, 2000.  Effects of replicating primary reflex movements on specific reading difficulties in children: A randomised double blind controlled trial.  Lancet. 355/2:537-541.

*Goddard Blythe SA, 2001.  Neurological Dysfunction as a Significant Factor in Children Diagnosed with Dyslexia.  Proceedings of The 5th International British Dyslexia Conference.  University of York. April 2001.

Taylor M, Houghton S, Chapman E, 2004. Primitive reflexes and Attention Deficit Disorder: developmental origins of classroom dysfunction. International Journal of Special Education (Vol. 19/1)

McPhillips M, Sheehy N. 2004 Prevalence of persistent primary reflexes in children with reading difficulties. Dyslexia.10/4:316-338

*Goddard Blythe SA, 2005.  Releasing educational potential through movement.  A summary of individual studies carried out using The INPP Test Battery and Developmental Exercise Programme for use in Schools with Children with Special Needs.  Child Care in Practice. 11/4:415-432. 

*Goddard Blythe SA, 2009.  Attention balance and coordination – the A,B,C of learning success.  Wiley-Blackwell.  Chichester. 2nd edition 2017.

Brown,CG, 2010. Improving fine motor skills in young children: an intervention study. Educational Psychology in Practice. 26/3: 269-27

Kurt S, 2011.  Findings of impaired motor cortex inhibition in ADHD offers potential for quantitative evaluation of children.  Neurology Today. 11/4:31-32.

Mink JW, 2011.  Faulty brakes?  Inhibitory processes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neurology.76/7:592-593

King KL, Scahill CJ, 2011.  Combining physical activity with classroom lessons results in improved test scores. American Academy of Pediatrics. Science Daily. 

Bart O, Jarus T, Erez Y, Rosenberg L, 2011. How do young children with DCD participate and enjoy daily activities? Research in Developmental Disabilities. 32/4:1317-1322. Special Issue: Developmental Coordination Disorder 

Hogan MJ, Staff RT, Bunting BP, Murray AD, Ahearn TS, Deary IJ, Whalley LJ. Cerebellar brain volume accounts for variance in cognitive performance in older adults. Cortex. 47/4:441-450, April 2011

*Goddard Blythe SA, 2011. Neuromotor maturity as an indicator of developmental readiness for education.  In: Movement, Vision, Hearing – The Basis for Learning.  Kulesza EM (Ed).  Wydawnictwo Akademie Pedagogiki Specjalnej im Marii Grzegorzewskiej. Warsaw  September 2011. pp.121-136.

Alibali MW, Spencer RC, Knox L, Sotaro K, 2011. Spontaneous Gestures Influence Strategy Choices in Problem Solving Psychological Science. 22/9: 1138-1144.

Singh A, Uitdewilligen L, Twisk JWR, van Mechelin W, Chinapaw JMJ, 2012. Physical activity and performance at school: A systematic review of the literature including a methodical quality assessment. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. 166/1:49-55.

Martin J, 2011. Environmental factors predict undeserved children’s physical activity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. June 2011.

*Blythe P, Goddard Blythe SA, 2012. Correcting Clinical Facts. Abnormal Primitive Reflexes in Behavioural Optometry and Vision Therapy. .Journal of Behavioral Optometry. 23/ 5-6:138. 

Konicarova J & BobP., 2013, Asymmetric tonic neck reflex and symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in children. May 2013. The International journal of neuroscience 123/11.  DOI: 10.3109/00207454.2013.801471

*Berg A, Fitzgerald S, Neurophysiological training in children with motor difficulties. Fysioterapeuten 13.1.2014.

Gieysztor EZ, Choińska AM & Paprocka-Borowicz M., 2015.  Persistence of primitive reflexes and associated problems in healthy pre-school children.  Archives of Medical Science :167-173.

Gieysztor EZ, Sadowska L,  Choińska AM & Paprocka-Borowicz M., 2016.  Trunk rotation due to persistence of primitive reflexes in early school-age children.  Adv Clin Exp Med.  2018:27/3:363-366.

Gieysztor EZ, Sadowska L &  Choińska AM, 2017.   The degree of primitive reflexes integration as a diagnostic tool to assess the neurological maturity of healthy pre-school and early school age children.   Piel ZDR Publ. 2017:26/1:5-11.

Andrich P, Shihada MB, Vinci MK, Wrenhaven SL, Goodman GD, 2018. Statistical relationships between visual skill deficits and retained primitive reflexes in children. Optometry and Visual Performance. 6/3:106-111.

*Goddard Blythe SA, 2018. Children’s developmental needs should lead policy.  Early Years Education (EYE). 20/3:22-24. July 2018.

Ivanović LB et al. 2018.  Does neuromotor immaturity represent a risk for acquiring basic academic skills in school-age children?  Vojnoisanitetski Pregled.   Military Medical and Pharmaceutical Review.  January 2018.

Brannigan R et al. The role of prenatal stress as a pathway to personality disorder: longitudinal birth cohort study. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 6th September 2019.

Taylor B, Hanna D & McPhillips M., 2019. Motor problems in children with severe emotional and behavioural difficulties: Motor problems and EBD. British Journal of Educational Psychology 90(2). DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12327

Gieysztor E , Choińska AM,  Pecuch A, Kowal M, Borowicz W & Paprocka-Borowicz M.,2019.  The level of primitive reflex integration in children who play a musical instrument.  Pediatr. Pol. 2019:94/5:293-298.

*Goddard Blythe SA, 2019.  Leaps towards learning.  Early Years Education (EYE) magazine. 21/6:18-20.  October 2019.

Pecuch A , Gieysztor E , Telenga M  , Wolanska E , Kowal M & Paprocka-Borowicz M., Primitive Reflex Activity in Relation to the Sensory Profile in Healthy Preschool Children.

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 8210; doi:10.3390/ijerph17218210

*Goddard Blythe SA, 2020. The Body Learns Too: How the Brain–Body 

Relationship Helps to Lay Down Highways of the Mind. Self and Society. 48/2. Autumn 2020.

Mironova Tabachová J, Vitásková K., 2020.  Evaluation of primary reflexes in children with communication disorder aged 5 – 10 years in relation to preschool and primary school competencies. Proceedings of the 13th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation. 9-10 November, 2020. Online Conference. ISSN: 2340-1095

*Goddard Blythe SA and Lunina N, 2020. Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning, Modern methods of prevention and correction of developmental disorders for children: Tradition and innovation: Sat. materials of the II International Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference, October 22-23, 2020. ed. O. N. Usanova. – M .: Kogito-Center – Moscow Institute of Psychoanalysis, 2020 .–  pp. 11-23.  ISBN 978-5-89353-607-2.

*Zielińska M, Goddard Blythe SA, 2021. School functioning of students with neuromotor immaturity. International Journal of Pedagogy Innovation and New Technologies journal Vol. 7, No. 2, 2020, pp. 40-46.

*Goddard Blythe SA. Duncombe R. Preedy P. Gorely T., 2021. Neuromotor readiness for school:  the primitive reflex status of young children at the start and end of their first year at school in the United Kingdom.  Education 3- 13.  March 2021.

*Matuszkiewicz M and Tadeusz Gałkowsk T.,  2021. Developmental Language Disorder and Uninhibited Primitive Reflexes in Young Children.  Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research. February 2021.

Gieysztor EZ, Pecuch A, Kowal M, Borowicz W  & Paprocka-Borowicz M., 2020.  Pelvic symmetry is influenced by Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex during Children’s Gait.  Int. J. of Environ. Res. Public Health. 2020:17/4759.

Demiy A, Kalemba A, Lorent M, Pecuch A, Wolańska E, Telenga M & Gieysztor EZ., 2020.  A child’s perception of their developmental difficulties in relation to their adult assessment.  Analysis of the INPP Questionnaire.  J. Pers. Med. 2020:10/156.

Hickey J, Feldhacker DR, 2020. Primitive reflex retention and attention among preschool children.  Journal of Occupational Therapy, Schools and Early Intervention. April 2020.

Pecuch A, Gieysztor EZ, , Wolańska E, Telenga M & Paprocka-Borowicz M., 2021.  Primitive reflex activity in relation to motor skills in healthy pre-school children. Brain Sci. 2021:11/967.

*The Correlation between Residual Primitive Reflexes and Clock Reading Difficulties in School-Aged Children—A Pilot Study.  Kalemba A,  Lorent M,  Goddard Blythe SA  & Gieysztor, E.   International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.  2023, 20, 2322. ijerph2003232

Domingo_Sanz VA, 2023.Inhibition of Primitive Reflexes and Its Relationship with
Visual Projection in Children and Adolescents.  Optometry & Visual Performance. ISSN 2325-3487

*Goddard Blythe, SA  Are Immature Neuromotor Skills Significant Factors in Educational Under-achievement and Special Educational Needs? Literature review of the role of Primitive Reflexes as Indicators and Measures of Neuromotor Immaturity. Institute for Neuro-Physiological Psychology, Wielka Brytania. Szkoła Specjalna.  2023-04-30


Blythe P, McGlown DJ, 1978.  An organic basis for neuroses and educational difficulties. Insight Publications. Chester.

Goddard SA, 1996.  A teacher’s window into the child’s mind.  Fern Ridge Press. Eugene. OR. (Out of print)

Goddard Blythe SA, 2003.  The well balanced child. Hawthorn Press. Eugene. OR.

Goddard Blythe SA, 2009.  Attention, balance and coordination – the A,B,C of learning success.  Wiley-Blackwell. Chichester. 2nd edition 2017.

Goddard Blythe SA, 2011. The genius of natural childhood.  Hawthorn Press. Stroud. 

House R (Ed), 2011. Physical foundations for learning. In. Too much too soon. Early learning and the erosion of childhood. Hawthorn Press.  Stroud.

Goddard Blythe SA, 2012.  Assessing neuromotor readiness for learning. The INPP screening test and developmental movement programme.  Wiley-Blackwell.  Chichester.  

Clouder C, Heys P, Matthes M, Sullivan B, (Eds). Improving the Quality of Childhood in Europe.2012. Collection of presentations made to working group at The European Parliament. Brussels in 2011. Forest Row. Sussex. Publication date. Spring 2012.

Goddard Blythe SA, 2014.  Neuromotor immaturity in children and adults.  The INPP screening test for clinicians and health practitioners.  Wiley-Blackwell.  Chichester.

Goddard Blythe SA, 2017. Raising happy healthy children.  Hawthorn Press. Stroud.

Goddard Blythe SA, 2018. Movement.  Your Child’s First Language.  Hawthorn Press. Stroud.

In: Early Childhood Education Redefined: Reflections and Recommendations on the Impact of Start Right Pat Preedy P, Sanderson K, Ball C, (Eds).  Routledge.

Goddard Blythe SA, 2023.  Reflexes Movement Learning and Behaviour.  Hawthorn Press.  Stroud/